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The conflict had to do with AutoHotKey scripts I'm running which manipulate the remote virtual desktop, focus of the full-screen RDP session, as well as the local virtual desktops. I've since reorganized my virtual desktops such that it's not a big deal. I could probably come up with an AutoHotKey script to perform the Ctrl+Win+D and Ctrl+Win+F4 workaround with a single keypress. I didn't know about those two shortcuts, so thanks for that.

I didn't really expect this suggestion to get implemented given the niche use case. But I thought it was worth a shot, and it gave me a platform on which to share my workaround with anyone googling the same problem.

Thanks for the response.